Room 20

In this section we shall examine another popular form in music, the rondo. But first!

Here are some other brief forms that should be noted.

Binary form is typical of most folk songs. For example, consider the song "Clementine." It's in Binary form. The A section goes with the words, "Oh, my darlin' oh my darlin', oh my darlin' Clementine." The B section goes with the words "You are lost and gone forever, oh my darlin' Clementine."

What about ternary form?? Look at the song Twinkle, Twinkle little star. The form of the song is A--B--A

Look at the words

A--Twinkle, twinkle, little star,
How I wonder what you are.

B--Up above the world so high,
Like a diamond in the sky.

A--Twinkle, twinkle, little star,
How I wonder what you are!

The rondo merely has a recurring theme which keeps coming back. If we call the first theme A, the structure of a rondo might be A-B-A-C-A, where B and C are contrasting sections. In the rondo we will examine here, by Mozart, there are two basic themes and contrasting material. Sometimes the themes change key or tonality.

This rondo comes from one of Mozart's most popular works, Eine kleine Nachtmusik A Little Night Music. First we'll hear the first theme. Listen!

You might want to listen again, so you have it really well in mind.

Then, there is contrasting material which comes back occasionally. Listen!

The second theme sounds this way. Listen!

Let's listen to the first theme when it is played in a different key. Listen!

You might want to listen back to back to the first theme in it original key and the one which has modulated to another key, so you can clearly hear the difference.

Here is another version of the contrasting theme. Listen!

Aa with the other pieces we have shown you, here is a timetable of events so you can keep track of where you are.

0:00 first theme
0:15 contrasting theme
0:23 second theme
0:39 first theme a fourth lower than original
1:03 first theme original key
1:17 contrasting section
1:25 second theme
1:40 first theme lower key
2:05 first theme half step higher than previous changing key
2:30 second theme in new key
2:46 first theme original key
3:04 variants of original theme
3:17 first theme leading to ending

When you're ready, listen to the entire movement. Listen!

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